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Remarks on Signing the Juneteenth National Independence Day Act. [freely available]

by U.S. President Joseph R. Biden Jr. Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents. July 17, 2021, p1-4. 4p.

Abstract: The article presents a speech by U.S. President Joseph R. Biden Jr., delivered at the White House in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 2021. Topics discussed include the signing of the Juneteenth National Independence Day Act, the conviction of Dylann S. Roof for the shootings at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina, and the capacity of U.S. Representative Joyce Beatty as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus.

Finally Freedom.

By: Jordan, Jamon. Chronicle: The Quarterly Magazine of the Historical Society of Michigan. Fall2015, Vol. 38 Issue 3, p29-31. 3p. Historical Period: 1833 to 1865.

Abstract: The article talks about the Juneteenth Independence day or holiday that marks the freedom of African-American slaves and abolition of slavery during the U.S. Civil War focusing on the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Texas and the significance of Juneteenth to Detroit, Michigan.

Teaching Resources for 'When Peace Come': Teaching the Emancipation Proclamation and Juneteenth".

By: Richardson, Rebecca Cumminps; Dillard-Allen, Venita; Garrett-Scott, Shennette. Black History Bulletin. Summer/Fall2013, Vol. 76 Issue 2, p22-25. 4p. Historical Period: ca 1776 to ca 2013.

Abstract: The article presents a lesson plan for secondary education which presents the U.S, Emancipation Proclamation and Juneteenth, or the Emancipation Day.

Emancipation is a Park.

By: Blue, Carroll Parrott. Houston History. Summer2012, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p15-18. 4p. Historical Period: 1865 to 2012.

Abstract: The article focuses on the history of Emancipation Park in Houston, Texas. The author explains that the park was originally purchased by four former slaves as a place to celebrate the Emancipation Proclamation on June 19, 1865, a day which has come to be known as Juneteenth and an official state holiday in 36 states. She recounts her memories of eating cotton candy in the park as a young girl, discusses the re-starting of the non-profit organization Friends of Emancipation Park, and notes that in 2010 the park was awarded a historic designation from the city to begin a revitalization project.

Emancipation Day.

By: LaRue, Paul. Black History Bulletin, Fall2012, Vol. 75 Issue 2, p20-23, 4p

Abstract: The article discusses the history of Emancipation Day, which celebrates the abolition of slavery in the United States. 19th century commemorations of the event on various dates following U.S. President Abraham Lincoln's issue of the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862 are discussed, and special attention is paid to Ohio's history of commemorating the event. The author notes that June 19th (Juneteenth) has become the most widely celebrated Emancipation day, and a lesson plan for teaching middle and high school students about Emancipation is provided, including outlines of a warm-up activity, assessment activities, and teacher resources.

Juneteenth, Black Texans and the Case for Reparations.

By: Jeffries, Judson L. Negro Educational Review, Apr-Jul2004, Vol. 55 Issue 2/3, p107-115, 9p

Abstract: The writer contends that African-Americans from Texas are, at a minimum, entitled to reparations comparable to two and a half years of unpaid backbreaking labor because they remained in bondage nearly three years beyond the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. The writer considers the events leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation, why slavery did not officially end in some states until nearly three years after the signing of the proclamation, why some oppose reparations, and why descendants of the enslaved are entitled to reparations

Public Memory, Cultural Legacy, and Press Coverage of the Juneteenth Revival.

By: Hume, Janice; Arceneaux, Noah. Journalism History, Fall2008, Vol. 34 Issue 3, p155-162, 8p

Abstract: Following the Civil War, African Americans in Texas celebrated their emancipation with an annual holiday known as "Juneteenth." The celebration migrated to other areas of the country, and over the past several years there has been a concerted effort to establish it as a national holiday. Using the recent revival and diffusion of Juneteenth as its focal point, this article examines local press coverage of the celebration in four states. The coverage illustrates how journalists invoke history to explain current events and also highlights the changing, fluid nature of public memory. In contrast to the view of history as a fixed, stable account of past events, the evidence reveals that the historical record is continually changing based upon contemporary concerns, political motivations, and, in this particular case, the ongoing integration of African Americans into American society.

Slavery in a Texas Seaport: The Peculiar Institution in Galveston.

By: Shelton, Robert S. Slavery & Abolition. Aug2007, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p155-168. 14p. Historical Period: 1838 to 1860.

Abstract: Historians of urban slavery, free black people, and the Atlantic maritime world have demonstrated that the urban milieu, maritime commerce, and proximity to the sea provided free and enslaved African Americans in seaport cities with opportunities that challenged the premises and practices of bondage. Yet, the relatively young and small seaport of Galveston, Texas, has received little attention from scholars. Growing in the two decades before the Civil War from a rough village to one of the most important cotton ports on the Gulf of Mexico, Galveston maintained strict slave codes modeled on those adopted by other Southern states in response to slave rebellions and the rise of militant abolitionism in the 1830's. Nevertheless, black Galvestonians, like black seaport residents elsewhere, found greater possibilities for resisting or fleeing slavery than were available to African Americans in the interior.

Juneteenth: The Evolution of An Emancipation Celebration.

By: Turner, Elizabeth Hayes. European Contributions to American Studies. Oct2006, Vol. 65, p69-81. 13p. Historical Period: 1865 to 2005.

Abstract: Explores the origins of and changes to Juneteenth celebrations through five stages. Juneteenth celebrates 19 June 1865, the day the last Texas slaves heard about emancipation. The initial stage of celebration involved church-centered community gatherings. Beginning in 1919, celebrations were curtailed during the height of lynching and segregation. However, celebrations became increasingly commercialized between World War I and World War II. The third stage, the 1960's, saw attention shift to civil liberties struggles. The 1970's heralded the fourth stage, which returned the focus to African American freedom and arts. By 2005, Juneteenth was celebrated in most major cities across the United States; many members of Congress and activists are pushing for the day to be recognized as a national holiday.

Galveston Slavery.

By: Rozek, Barbara J. Houston Review. 1993, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p67-101. 35p. Historical Period: 1850 to 1859.

Abstract: Describes the condition of slavery in Galveston, Texas, in the decade prior to the Civil War. As the major antebellum port city of Texas, Galveston reflected the "contribution of the urban arena in maintaining and supporting the slave system, while differing from the system as it developed in rural, agricultural environments.


By: Wiggins Jr., William H. American Visions. Jun/Jul93, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p28. 4p. 1 Color Photograph, 3 Black and White Photographs. Historical Period: 1865 to 1993.

Abstract: Notes the revival of the Juneteenth celebration in recent years, a tradition that first began in Texas, commemorating 19 June 1865 as the date of emancipation of black slaves in Texas. The celebration spread to other cities in the Midwest and in the East until it declined in the 1940's.

A Struggle for Sovereignty: National Consolidation, Emancipation, and Free Labor in Texas, 1865.

By: Cohen-Lack, N. Journal of Southern History. Feb92, Vol. 58 Issue 1, p57. 42p.

Abstract: In June 1865, a Union army was sent to force Texans to accept national sovereignty and the abolition of slavery. The reunification of the nation and the status of the freedmen were linked together. Northerners brought two versions of free labor society with them, one based on waged employment, the other on independent farming in the Jeffersonian tradition. African Americans supported the latter view. In the interests of societal stability and harvesting the Texas cotton crop, however, the army enforced labor contracts that kept freedmen working on plantations.

Juneteenth: "They Closed the Town Up, Man!

By: Wiggins, William H. American Visions. Jun1986, Vol. 1 Issue 3, p40-45. 6p. Historical Period: 1865 to 1986.

Abstract: Describes "Juneteenth," black America's celebration of June 19th as the day emancipation was declared in the Southwest, and the colorful traditions and political import of this holiday in the states of Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.

The End of Slavery in Texas: A Research Note

by Campbell, Randolph B. Southwestern Historical Quarterly. Jul1984, Vol. 88 Issue 1, p71-80. 10p. Historical Period: 1865 to 1868 
Abstract: Black Texans celebrate their emancipation day on June 19th, because Union Major General Gordon Granger proclaimed freedom for them on that date in 1865. No one, however, was sure whether June 19th marked the legal termination of slavery or whether that date merely was symbolic. The exact date was important because it determined the validity of contracts for the purchase or hire of slaves. Lawsuits over those contracts began reaching the Texas Supreme Court by spring, 1867. The court ruled that slavery in Texas legally ended on 19 June 1865, with the surrender of the insurgents to the conquering forces. Therefore, contracts entered into prior to that time were valid. Notes: Based on Texas Supreme Court records and secondary sources; 6 photos, 13 notes.

The Free Negro in Galveston County, Texas.

By: Muir, Andrew Forest. Negro History Bulletin. May1959, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p68-70. 3p. Historical Period: 1800 to 1899.

Abstract: Discusses the fate of the small number of free Negroes in Galveston before the Civil War. After laws made residence for free Negroes illegal in Texas, some of them voluntarily became the nominal property of white masters in order to stay in the State. While some slaves were freed in Galveston, other free Negroes were enslaved both legally and illegally.