Authors are scholars and experts in the field. Authors are always named, and their institutional affiliation is given.
|Authors are staff writers or journalists.|
Publishers may be university presses or professional associations. Articles may be edited through the peer-review process by scholars in the same field of study.
|Publishers are corporations, working for profit.|
Articles are longer with a focus on research projects, methodology and theory. Language is more formal, technical, using discipline specific terminology.
Articles may be shorter with a general focus on the topic and written for news or entertainment value.
Sources are cited and a bibliography or footnotes provided to document the research.
|Sources are not usually cited.|
Article may include these sections: abstract, literature review, methodology, results, conclusion, and a bibliography.
|Specific format is not followed.|
Audience consists of academics, scholars, researchers, and professionals.
|Audience is the general public.|