Gratis [free to read]
Green [author self-archives, usually a final author version, in an institutional or subject repository]
TA [toll access, sometimes also "behind a paywall"]
Embargo period [time during which access is not allowed to certain types of users]
Hybrid journal [some gold oa articles, some TA articles; publisher gets subscription fees AND article publication charges; some publishers of hybrid journals may be paid twice, e.g, "double dipping;" another problem with OA articles in hybrid journals is that they are sometime hidden or hard to identify as open]
Harvard-style mandate [Faculty members grant the university a nonexclusive, irrevocable right to distribute their scholarly articles for any non-‐commercial purpose. Authors are free to transfer all remaining rights to the publishers and to opt-out when their chosen publisher does not allow; a number of institutions, e.g. MIT, Princeton, University of Kansas, and University of California, have similar policies. WUSTL OA policy is NOT a Harvard-style mandate.]
NIH Public Access Policy requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts that arise from NIH funds to the digital archive PubMed Central upon acceptance for publication; the Policy requires that these papers are accessible to the public on PubMed Central no later than 12 months after publication.
Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR) | Public Access to Public Science (PAPS) Act Various proposed US legislation.
OSTP directive Policy memorandum (February 2013), from the Executive Office of the President/Office of Science and Technology Support (OSTP) Director John Holdren, directing US federal agencies with more than $100M in R&D expenditures to develop plans to make the published results of federally funded research freely available to the public within one year of publication and requiring researchers to better account for and manage the digital data resulting from federally funded scientific research.
Glossary, pp. 175-176 in Open Access, by Peter Suber. MIT Press, June 2012.
see also Definitions, p. 4 of Open Access: Summary Report—Evolution of OA Policies and Availability, 1996-2013, Prepared by Science-Metrix, 2014.
see also Tennant, Jon; Mounce, Ross (2015): Open Research Glossary. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1482094
Budapest Open Access Initiative definition, reaffirmed 2012: By “open access” to [peer-reviewed research literature], we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. From Budapest Open Access Initiative 10 Recommendations. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
Journals can be more open or less open, but their degree of openness is intrinsically independent from their:
* Impact * Prestige * Quality of Peer Review * Peer Review Methodology * Sustainability * Effect on Tenure & Promotion * Article Quality