"Positionality refers to the stance or positioning of the researcher in relation to the social and political context of the study—the community, the organization or the participant group. The position adopted by a researcher affects every phase of the research process, from the way the question or problem is initially constructed, designed and conducted to how others are invited to participate, the ways in which knowledge is constructed and acted on and, finally, the ways in which outcomes are disseminated and published."
-Coghlan, D., & Brydon-Miller, M. (2014). The SAGE encyclopedia of action research. London: SAGE Publications, Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781446294406
See the guidebooks in Starting Out for advice related to your field of research with regards to your interactions with research participants and the experiences studied. In addition to gender and sexuality, it is important that researchers understand their positionality in regards to race and ethnicity, class, ability, and other social indicators.