define different types of authority, such as subject expertise (e.g., scholarship), societal position (e.g., public office or title), or special experience (e.g., participating in a historic event);
use research tools and indicators of authority to determine the credibility of sources, understanding the elements that might temper this credibility;
understand that many disciplines have acknowledged authorities in the sense of well-known scholars and publications that are widely considered “standard,” and yet, even in those situations, some scholars would challenge the authority of those sources;
recognize that authoritative content may be packaged formally or informally and may include sources of all media types;
acknowledge you are developing your own authoritative voice in a particular area and recognize the responsibilities this entails, including seeking accuracy and reliability, respecting intellectual property, and participating in communities of practice;
understand the increasingly social nature of the information ecosystem where authorities actively connect with one another and sources develop over time.