In 1968 over 10,000 Chicana/o high school students in East Los Angeles walked out of their schools in the first major protest against racism and educational inequality staged by Mexican Americans in the United States. They ignited the Mexican-American civil rights movement, which opened the doors to higher education and equal opportunity in employment for Mexican Americans and other Latinos previously excluded.
The Depression era saw the first mass student movement in American history. The crusade, led in large part by young Communists, was both an anti-war campaign and a movement championing a broader and more egalitarian vision of the welfare state than that of the New Dealers. The movement arose from a massive political awakening on campus, caused by the economic crisis of the 1930s, the escalating international tensions, and threat of world war wrought by fascism.
The traumas and controversies of the 1960s--the civil rights movement, the Vietnam War, and the pervasive antiauthoritarian spirit so evident on college campuses--infiltrated American public high schools. Students challenging their relegation to the world of children demanded the right to express their political views and to have a voice in decisions about their education. Adopting the activist tactics of the times, they organized strikes and demonstrations, initiated petitions and boycotts, and sought recourse through lawsuits and occasional violence.
What began at colleges in the sixties as a rejection of parental authority and the Vietnam War rapidly evolved into a social movement, one with lasting influences in diverse areas of American life. As anti-Communist and Great Society Democrats lost control of the Vietnam War and the unrest in America's inner cities, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the chief organization of the campus-based New Left, gained strength, ending the decade with 100,000 members. From political protest, SDS and its faculty and intellectual allies moved to violent confrontation with university and government officials.
Using previously classified documents and original interviews, The Other Alliance examines the channels of cooperation between American and West German student movements throughout the 1960s and early 1970s, and the reactions these relationships provoked from the U.S. government. Revising the standard narratives of American and West German social mobilization, Martin Klimke demonstrates the strong transnational connections between New Left groups on both sides of the Atlantic.
Retrospectives of the 1960s routinely include the face of youth rebellion: long-haired students occupying campus buildings, young men burning draft cards, hippies dancing at Woodstock. In Younger Than That Now, Holly V. Scott explores how the idea of "youth" served as a tactic in the political and social activism of these years. In the early part of that decade, young white activists began to learn from the civil rights movement's defiance of racism. They examined their own lives and concluded that campus rules and the draft were repression as well. As a group, they were ripe for revolution, and their age gave them a unique perspective for understanding and protesting against injustice. In short, young people began to use their youth as a political strategy. Some in the New Left were dubious of this strategy and asked how it might damage long-term progress. Young feminists and people of color were particularly quick to question the idea that age alone was enough to sustain a movement. And the media often presented young people as impulsive and naive, undermining their political legitimacy. In tracing how "youth" took on multiple meanings as the 1960s progressed, Scott demonstrates the power of this idea to both promote and hinder social change.
The Veterans of Future Wars (VFW) was a short-lived student movement that came in response to the bonus paid to World War I veterans in 1936. The VFW began at Princeton University, but quickly spread across the United States, attracting attention from all groups of American citizens. It was extremely popular on college campuses, but it engendered vocal and intemperate opposition from the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the American Legion, chambers of commerce, and other citizens. The student leaders were branded as Communists, Fascists, or other similar subversive groups. The group attracted attention from political leaders; some members of Congress were supportive, but others attacked the group on the floor of the House of Representatives.
A longtime agitator against war and social injustice, Lawrence Wittner has been tear-gassed, threatened by police with drawn guns, charged by soldiers with fixed bayonets, spied upon by the U.S. government, arrested, and purged from his job for political -reasons. To say that this teacher-historian-activist has led an interesting life is a considerable understatement. In this absorbing memoir, Wittner traces the dramatic course of a life and career that took him from a Brooklyn boyhood in the 1940s and '50s to an education at Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin to the front lines of peace activism, the fight for racial equality, and the struggles of the labor movement.
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Scott, Holly V. Younger than That Now: The Politics of Age in the 1960s. University of Massachusetts Press, 2016.
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Dissertations and Theses
Asregadoo, Edward Dyanand. Revolution Interrupted: Chronicling and Comparing Student Protest Movements at Stanford University, San Francisco State College, and the University of California at Berkeley, 1964–1970. University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Bailey, Nicole. “The Languages of Other People”: The Experiences of Tutors, Administrators, and Students in a South African Multilingual Writing Center. Indiana State University, 2016.
Barrera, Baldemar James. `We Want Better Education!’: The Chicano Student Movement for Educational Reform in South Texas, 1968-1970. Jan. 2008.
---. “We Want Better Education.”: The Chicano Student Movement for Educational Reform in South Texas, 1968–1970. The University of New Mexico, 2007.
Barrett, Simone R. “We Bring Thee Our Laurels Whatever They May Be”: A Concise History of Morgan State College Student-Led Protest. Morgan State University, 2017.
Benin, Leigh David. A Red Thread in Garment: Progressive Labor and New York City’s Industrial Heartland in the 1960s and 1970s. New York University, 1997.
Bowman, Graeme C. Rise and Fall of an Educational Experiment: Black Studies in Californian Public Higher Education, 1963-74. University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), 1990.
Burdick, Susane. Gender, Culture and Classroom Interactions. Michigan State University, 1987.
Byaruhanga, Frederick K. Student Power, a Misnomer? Student Activism in Uganda’s Higher Education: A Case Study of Makerere University (1950–2001). University of California, Los Angeles, 2003.
Casanova, Stephen. The Ethnic Studies Movement: The Case of the University of Wisconsin Madison. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2001.
Collisson, Craig. The Fight to Legitimize Blackness: How Black Students Changed the University. University of Washington, 2008.
Crossley, Alison Dahl. Social Movement Continuity and Abeyance: Feminist Mobilization on U.S. College Campuses. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2013.
Dyer, Conrad M. Protest and the Politics of Open Admissions: The Impact of the Black and Puerto Rican Students’ Community (of City College). City University of New York, 1990.
Exum, William Henry. Black Student Movements in White Colleges and Universities: A Case Study.New York University, 1974.
Favors, Jelani Manu-Gowon. Shelter in a Time of Storm: Black Colleges and the Rise of Student Activism in Jackson, Mississippi. The Ohio State University, 2006.
Feulner, Frank. At the Forefront of Reform: Student Protest and Regime Transition in Indonesia. University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (United Kingdom), 2001.
Gallon, Kim T. Between Respectability and Modernity: Black Newspapers and Sexuality, 1925–1940. University of Pennsylvania, 2009.
Glasker, Wayne Clifton. The Paradoxes of Integration: A Case Study of the Black Student Movement at the University of Pennsylvania, 1965-1990. University of Pennsylvania, 1994.
Hart, Noah. A Comparison of Journalistic Treatment of Student Protest Activity by Black and White Reporters for Student Newspapers at Rutgers, The State University. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 1988.
Irvine, Timothy. “Rhodes Must Fall”: South Africa’s Ongoing University Student Protests Against Contemporary Globalization’s Neoliberal Violence. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2016.
Jones, Brian P. The Tuskegee Revolt: Student Activism, Black Power, and the Legacy of Booker T. Washington. City University of New York, 2018.
Keiser, Justin Bruce. Where Did the Band Come From?": Student Protest at Miami University in April 1970. Miami University, 2003.
Kinchen, Shirletta Jeanette. “We Want What People Generally Refer to as Black Power”: Youth and Student Activism and the Impact of the Black Power Movement in Memphis, Tennessee, 1965–1975. The University of Memphis, 2011.
Kynard, Carmen. “Runnin with the Rabbits but Huntin with the Dogs”: Race, Literacy Instruction, and Black Protest from 1969 to 1977. New York University, 2005.
Linzie, Roderick Keith. Analysis of the Anti-Racist Student Movement at the University of Michigan - Ann Arbor. University of Michigan, 1993.
Marrun, Norma Angelica. Gente Estudiada: Latina/o Students Confronting and Engaging Home/Community Knowledge within/Outside Institutions of Higher Education. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2015.
Maseko, Sipho Sibusiso. The Student Movement and the Struggle for Liberation in Namibia. Queen’s University (Canada), 1992.
Mathis, William Jefferson. Political Socialization in a Mexican American High School. Mar. 1974.
Menell-Kinberg, Monica Esther. United States Scholarships for Black South Africans, 1976-1990: The Politicization of Education. University of California, Los Angeles, 1991.
Molina, Francyn. The Psychosocial and Political Development of Former Chicano Student Movement Activists: A View Fifteen Years Later. The Wright Institute, 1984.
Mora-Ninci, Carlos Osualdo. The Chicano /a Student Movement in Southern California in the 1990s. University of California, Los Angeles, 1999.
Moreno, Marisol. “Of the Community, for the Community”: The Chicana/o Student Movement in California’s Public Higher Education, 1967-1973. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2009.
Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents. University of California, Los Angeles, 2016.
Navia, Christine N. The Path to Activism: A Qualitative Study of How Six Undergraduates of Color Became Activists While Attending the University of Michigan. University of Michigan, 2008.
Nunez, Gabriela. Investigating La Frontera: Transnational Space in Contemporary Chicana/o and Mexican Detective Fiction. University of California, San Diego, 2007.
Oppenheimer, Martin. The Genesis of the Southern Negro Student Movement (Sit-in Movement): A Study in Contemporary Negro Protest.University of Pennsylvania, 1963.
Orozco, Vanessa Gissel. Un-Dual Citizenship: A Case Study of Ab540 Students at Santa Ana College, Their Sense of Identity, and Their Journey in Support of the Dream Act. California State University, Fullerton, 2015.
Patton, Lori D. From Protest to Progress? An Examination of the Relevance, Relationships and Roles of Black Culture Centers in the Undergraduate Experiences of Black Students at Predominantly White Institutions. Indiana University, 2004.
Pitre, Abul Adonis. School Controversy and Student Protest Centered around a Black History Program: A Phenomenological Study of Student Activists. Colorado State University, 2000.
Quirarte, Carmina G. Adelante Por Una Causa: Women’s Participation in Mexico’s 1968 Student Movement and the Subsequent Upsurge of Feminism in the Country. California State University, Fullerton, 2008.
Rael, Carie Renee. Taking Back Our Education: How Students Shaped California’s Public Higher Education System, 1960-1996. California State University, Fullerton, 2015.
Richmond, Afrah Daaimah. Unmasking the Boston Brahmin: Race and Liberalism in the Long Struggle for Reform at Harvard and Radcliffe, 1945–1990. New York University, 2011.
Robinson, Marc Arsell. The Black Power Movement and the Black Student Union (BSU) in Washington State, 1967-1970. Washington State University, 2012.
Rodriguez, Celina. “We Have a Vision for Our Work”: An Exploration of Activist Scholarship in Contemporary Chicana/o Studies. University of California, Davis, 2010.
Rogers, Ibram Henry. The Black Campus Movement: An Afrocentric Narrative History of the Struggle to Diversify Higher Education, 1965–1972. Temple University, 2010.
Roseboro, Donyell L. Icons of Power and Landscapes of Protest: The Student Movement for the Sonja Haynes Stone Black Cultural Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2005.
Roy, Jerrold Wimbish. Student Activism and the Historically Black University: Hampton Institute and Howard University, 1960–1972. Harvard University, 2000.
Ryan, Angela Rose. Education for the People: The Third World Student Movement at San Francisco State College and City College of New York. The Ohio State University, 2010.
Ryan, John D. The Nature of the State in the Outcomes of the Mexican and French Student Movements of 1968. California State University, Dominguez Hills, 2011.
Soule, Sarah Anne. The Student Anti-Apartheid Movement in the United States: Diffusion of Protest Tactics and Policy Reform. Cornell University, 1995.
Thema, Elias Wilfrid Sello. African Student Protests and Government Responses in the 1970s and 80s in South Africa: An Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational Dimensions. Saint Mary’s University (Canada), 1990.
Vaden, Luci. Before the Corridor of Shame: The African American Fight for Equal Education After Jim Crow. University of South Carolina, 2014.
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“Black College Activism and Disciplinary Suspensions/Expulsions, 1960-1962: An Interview with Rosemari Mealy.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 6, no. 9, May 2014, pp. 134–39.
“Black Students End DePaul University Sit-In.” Christian Science Monitor, vol. 87, no. 99, Apr. 1995, p. 4.
Block, Robinson. “Afro-Americans for Black Liberation and the Fight for Civil Rights at the University of Houston.” Houston History, vol. 8, no. 1, Fall 2010, pp. 24–28.
Bradley, Stefan. “‘Gym Crow Must Go!’ Black Student Activism at Columbia University, 1967-1968.” Journal of African American History, vol. 88, no. 2, Spring 2003, pp. 163–81.
Bundy, Tess. “‘Revolutions Happen through Young People!’: The Black Student Movement in the Boston Public Schools, 1968-1971.” Journal of Urban History, vol. 43, no. 2, Mar. 2017, pp. 273–93. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0096144216688277.
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Claybrook Jr., M. Keith. “Black Power, Black Students, and the Institutionalizing of Change: Loyola Marymount University, 1968-1978.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 5, no. 10, June 2013, pp. 1–19.
---. “The Black Revolution on Campus: An Extended Book Review.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 6, no. 4, Sept. 2013, pp. 103–10.
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Flowers, Deidre B. “The Launching of the Student Sit-in Movement: The Role of Black Women at Bennett College.” Journal of African American History, vol. 90, no. 1/2, Winter/Spring 2005, pp. 52–63.
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Gass, Tony. “‘A Mean City’: The Baltimore NAACP and the Student Movement’s Efforts to Dismantle Segregation and Racial Discrimination, 1953-1963.” Conference Papers -- Association for the Study of African American Life & History, Annual Meeting 2008, pp. 21–21.
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Rogers, Ibram. “Celebrating 40 Years of Activism.” Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, vol. 23, no. 10, June 2006, pp. 18–22.
---. “The Black Campus Movement and the Institutionalization of Black Studies, 1965-1970.” Journal of African American Studies, vol. 16, no. 1, Mar. 2012, pp. 21–40. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s12111-011-9173-2.
---. “The Marginalization of the Black Campus Movement.” Journal of Social History, vol. 42, no. 1, Fall 2008, pp. 175–82.
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“The Black Revolution on Campus.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 6, no. 4, Sept. 2013, pp. 9–102.
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