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Student Protest at Washington University



Berta-Ávila, Margarita, et al., editors. Marching Students: Chicana and Chicano Activism in Education, 1968 to the Present. University of Nevada Press, 2011.
Cohen, Robert. When the Old Left Was Young: Student Radicals and America’s First Mass Student Movement, 1929-1941. Oxford University Press, 1993.
Eagan, Eileen. Class, Culture, and the Classroom: The Student Peace Movement of the 1930s. Temple University Press, 1981.
Graham, Gael. Young Activists: American High School Students in the Age of Protest. Northern Illinois University Press, 2006.
Heineman, Kenneth J. Put Your Bodies upon the Wheels: Student Revolt in the 1960s. I.R. Dee, 2001.
Klimke, Martin. The Other Alliance: Student Protest in West Germany and the United States in the Global Sixties. Princeton University Press, 2010.
Scott, Holly V. Younger than That Now: The Politics of Age in the 1960s. University of Massachusetts Press, 2016.
Whisenhunt, Donald Wayne. Veterans of Future Wars: A Study in Student Activism. Lexington Books, 2011.
Wittner, Lawrence S. Working for Peace and Justice: Memoirs of an Activist Intellectual. 1st ed, University of Tennessee Press, 2012.

Book Chapters

Hernandez, Patrícia, et al. “Lives of Chicana Activists: The Chicano Student Movement (a Case Study).” Mexican Women in the United States: Struggles Past & Present, 1980, pp. 17–25.
López, Sonia A., et al. “The Role of the Chicana Within the Student Movement.” Essays on La Mujer, 1977, pp. 16–29.

Dissertations and Theses

Asregadoo, Edward Dyanand. Revolution Interrupted:  Chronicling and Comparing Student Protest Movements at Stanford University, San Francisco State College, and the University of California at Berkeley, 1964–1970. University of Pennsylvania, 2000. 
Bailey, Nicole. “The Languages of Other People”: The Experiences of Tutors, Administrators, and Students in a South African Multilingual Writing Center. Indiana State University, 2016. 
Barrera, Baldemar James. `We Want Better Education!’: The Chicano Student Movement for Educational Reform in South Texas, 1968-1970. Jan. 2008.
---. “We Want Better Education.”: The Chicano Student Movement for Educational Reform in South Texas, 1968–1970. The University of New Mexico, 2007. 
Barrett, Simone R. “We Bring Thee Our Laurels Whatever They May Be”: A Concise History of Morgan State College Student-Led Protest. Morgan State University, 2017.
Benin, Leigh David. A Red Thread in Garment: Progressive Labor and New York City’s Industrial Heartland in the 1960s and 1970s. New York University, 1997. 
Bowman, Graeme C. Rise and Fall of an Educational Experiment: Black Studies in Californian Public Higher Education, 1963-74. University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), 1990. 
Burdick, Susane. Gender, Culture and Classroom Interactions. Michigan State University, 1987. 
Byaruhanga, Frederick K. Student Power, a Misnomer?  Student Activism in Uganda’s Higher Education:  A Case Study of Makerere University (1950–2001). University of California, Los Angeles, 2003. 
Casanova, Stephen. The Ethnic Studies Movement:  The Case of the University of Wisconsin Madison. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2001. 
Collisson, Craig. The Fight to Legitimize Blackness:  How Black Students Changed the University. University of Washington, 2008.
Crossley, Alison Dahl. Social Movement Continuity and Abeyance: Feminist Mobilization on U.S. College Campuses. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2013. 
Dyer, Conrad M. Protest and the Politics of Open Admissions: The Impact of the Black and Puerto Rican Students’ Community (of City College). City University of New York, 1990. 
Exum, William Henry. Black Student Movements in White Colleges and Universities: A Case Study.New York University, 1974. 
Favors, Jelani Manu-Gowon. Shelter in a Time of Storm: Black Colleges and the Rise of Student Activism in Jackson, Mississippi. The Ohio State University, 2006. 
Feulner, Frank. At the Forefront of Reform: Student Protest and Regime Transition in Indonesia. University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (United Kingdom), 2001. 
Gallon, Kim T. Between Respectability and Modernity: Black Newspapers and Sexuality, 1925–1940. University of Pennsylvania, 2009. 
Glasker, Wayne Clifton. The Paradoxes of Integration: A Case Study of the Black Student Movement at the University of Pennsylvania, 1965-1990. University of Pennsylvania, 1994. 
Hart, Noah. A Comparison of Journalistic Treatment of Student Protest Activity by Black and White Reporters for Student Newspapers at Rutgers, The State University. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 1988. 
Irvine, Timothy. “Rhodes Must Fall”: South Africa’s Ongoing University Student Protests Against Contemporary Globalization’s Neoliberal Violence. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2016. 
Jones, Brian P. The Tuskegee Revolt: Student Activism, Black Power, and the Legacy of Booker T. Washington. City University of New York, 2018. 
Keiser, Justin Bruce. Where Did the Band Come From?": Student Protest at Miami University in April 1970. Miami University, 2003. 
Kinchen, Shirletta Jeanette. “We Want What People Generally Refer to as Black Power”: Youth and Student Activism and the Impact of the Black Power Movement in Memphis, Tennessee, 1965–1975. The University of Memphis, 2011. 
Kynard, Carmen. “Runnin with the Rabbits but Huntin with the Dogs”: Race, Literacy Instruction, and Black Protest from 1969 to 1977. New York University, 2005. 
Linzie, Roderick Keith. Analysis of the Anti-Racist Student Movement at the University of Michigan - Ann Arbor. University of Michigan, 1993. 
Marrun, Norma Angelica. Gente Estudiada: Latina/o Students Confronting and Engaging Home/Community Knowledge within/Outside Institutions of Higher Education. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2015. 
Maseko, Sipho Sibusiso. The Student Movement and the Struggle for Liberation in Namibia. Queen’s University (Canada), 1992. 
Mathis, William Jefferson. Political Socialization in a Mexican American High School. Mar. 1974.
Menell-Kinberg, Monica Esther. United States Scholarships for Black South Africans, 1976-1990: The Politicization of Education. University of California, Los Angeles, 1991. 
Molina, Francyn. The Psychosocial and Political Development of Former Chicano Student Movement Activists: A View Fifteen Years Later. The Wright Institute, 1984. 
Mora-Ninci, Carlos Osualdo. The Chicano /a Student Movement in Southern California in the 1990s. University of California, Los Angeles, 1999. 
Moreno, Marisol. “Of the Community, for the Community”: The Chicana/o Student Movement in California’s Public Higher Education, 1967-1973. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2009. 
Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents. University of California, Los Angeles, 2016. 
Navia, Christine N. The Path to Activism: A Qualitative Study of How Six Undergraduates of Color Became Activists While Attending the University of Michigan. University of Michigan, 2008. 
Nunez, Gabriela. Investigating La Frontera: Transnational Space in Contemporary Chicana/o and Mexican Detective Fiction. University of California, San Diego, 2007. 
Oppenheimer, Martin. The Genesis of the Southern Negro Student Movement (Sit-in Movement): A Study in Contemporary Negro Protest.University of Pennsylvania, 1963. 
Orozco, Vanessa Gissel. Un-Dual Citizenship: A Case Study of Ab540 Students at Santa Ana College, Their Sense of Identity, and Their Journey in Support of the Dream Act. California State University, Fullerton, 2015. 
Patton, Lori D. From Protest to Progress? An Examination of the Relevance, Relationships and Roles of Black Culture Centers in the Undergraduate Experiences of Black Students at Predominantly White Institutions. Indiana University, 2004. 
Pitre, Abul Adonis. School Controversy and Student Protest Centered around a Black History Program:  A Phenomenological Study of Student Activists. Colorado State University, 2000. 
Quirarte, Carmina G. Adelante Por Una Causa:  Women’s Participation in Mexico’s 1968 Student Movement and the Subsequent Upsurge of Feminism in the Country. California State University, Fullerton, 2008. 
Rael, Carie Renee. Taking Back Our Education: How Students Shaped California’s Public Higher Education System, 1960-1996. California State University, Fullerton, 2015. 
Richmond, Afrah Daaimah. Unmasking the Boston Brahmin: Race and Liberalism in the Long Struggle for Reform at Harvard and Radcliffe, 1945–1990. New York University, 2011. 
Robinson, Marc Arsell. The Black Power Movement and the Black Student Union (BSU) in Washington State, 1967-1970. Washington State University, 2012. 
Rodriguez, Celina. “We Have a Vision for Our Work”: An Exploration of Activist Scholarship in Contemporary Chicana/o Studies. University of California, Davis, 2010. 
Rogers, Ibram Henry. The Black Campus Movement: An Afrocentric Narrative History of the Struggle to Diversify Higher Education, 1965–1972. Temple University, 2010. 
Roseboro, Donyell L. Icons of Power and Landscapes of Protest:  The Student Movement for the Sonja Haynes Stone Black Cultural Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2005. 
Roy, Jerrold Wimbish. Student Activism and the Historically Black University:  Hampton Institute and Howard University, 1960–1972. Harvard University, 2000. 
Ryan, Angela Rose. Education for the People: The Third World Student Movement at San Francisco State College and City College of New York. The Ohio State University, 2010. 
Ryan, John D. The Nature of the State in the Outcomes of the Mexican and French Student Movements of 1968. California State University, Dominguez Hills, 2011. 
Soule, Sarah Anne. The Student Anti-Apartheid Movement in the United States: Diffusion of Protest Tactics and Policy Reform. Cornell University, 1995. 
Thema, Elias Wilfrid Sello. African Student Protests and Government Responses in the 1970s and 80s in South Africa: An Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational Dimensions. Saint Mary’s University (Canada), 1990.
Vaden, Luci. Before the Corridor of Shame: The African American Fight for Equal Education After Jim Crow. University of South Carolina, 2014. 
Valenzuela, Harvey. Student Protest Outcomes: Case Study and the Effect for Institutional Change of the Student Protest Movement at New Mexico Highlands University, 1971-1981. University of Washington, 1984. 
Valle, Maria Eva. MEChA and the Transformation of Chicano Student Activism: Generational Change, Conflict, and Continuity. Jan. 1997.
White, Antonio J. “I Am Miami”:  Black Student Activism at Miami University, 1968–1978. Morgan State University, 2010. 

Journal Articles

Acosta, Curtis. “Huitzilopochtli: The Will and Resiliency of Tucson Youth to Keep Mexican American Studies Alive.” Multicultural Perspectives, vol. 16, no. 1, Jan. 2014, pp. 3–7. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/15210960.2013.867239.
Aguilar, Edmundo M. .. “Marching Students: Chicana and Chicano Activism in Education, 1968 to the Present.” Aztlan, vol. 38, no. 2, Fall 2013, pp. 267–70.
Aiello, Thomas. “Violence Is A Classroom: The 1972 Grambling and Southern Riots and the Trajectory of Black Student Protest.” Louisiana History, vol. 53, no. 3, Summer 2012, pp. 261–91.
Anderson, James D., and Christopher M. Span. “History of Education in the News The Legacy of Slavery, Racism, and Contemporary Black Activism on Campus.” History of Education Quarterly, vol. 56, no. 4, Nov. 2016, pp. 646–56. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/hoeq.12214.
Barrera, B. James. “The 1968 Edcouch-Elsa High School Walkout: Chicano Student Activism in a South Texas Community.” Aztlan, vol. 29, no. 2, Fall 2004, pp. 93–122.
Barrera, James. “The 1968 San Antonio School Walkouts: The Beginning of the Chicano Student Movement in South Texas.” Journal of South Texas, vol. 21, no. 1, Spring 2008, pp. 39–61.
Barrios, Gregg. “Walkout in Crystal City.” Teaching Tolerance, no. 35, Spring 2009, pp. 41–43.
Becker, Ben. “Under the Radar.” New Labor Forum (Sage Publications Inc.), vol. 20, no. 3, Fall 2011, pp. 6–8.
Bernal, Dolores Delgado. “Grassroots Leadership Reconceptualized: Chicana Oral Histories and the 1968 East Los Angeles School Blowouts.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, vol. 19, no. 2, June 1998, pp. 113–42.
“Black College Activism and Disciplinary Suspensions/Expulsions, 1960-1962: An Interview with Rosemari Mealy.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 6, no. 9, May 2014, pp. 134–39.
“Black Students End DePaul University Sit-In.” Christian Science Monitor, vol. 87, no. 99, Apr. 1995, p. 4.
Block, Robinson. “Afro-Americans for Black Liberation and the Fight for Civil Rights at the University of Houston.” Houston History, vol. 8, no. 1, Fall 2010, pp. 24–28.
Bradley, Stefan. “‘Gym Crow Must Go!’ Black Student Activism at Columbia University, 1967-1968.” Journal of African American History, vol. 88, no. 2, Spring 2003, pp. 163–81.
Bundy, Tess. “‘Revolutions Happen through Young People!’: The Black Student Movement in the Boston Public Schools, 1968-1971.” Journal of Urban History, vol. 43, no. 2, Mar. 2017, pp. 273–93. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0096144216688277.
Byndom, Samuel J. “Harlem vs. Columbia University: Black Student Power in the Late 1960’s.” Western Journal of Black Studies, vol. 35, no. 4, Fall 2011, pp. 294–95.
Cabrera, Nolan L., et al. “The Fight for Mexican American Studies in Tucson.” NACLA Report on the Americas, vol. 44, no. 6, Dec. 2011, pp. 20–24.
Cammarota, Julio. “The Praxis of Ethnic Studies: Transforming Second Sight into Critical Consciousness.” Race, Ethnicity & Education, vol. 19, no. 2, Mar. 2016, pp. 233–51. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/13613324.2015.1041486.
Chatelain, Marcia. “Making a Movement.” American Book Review, vol. 37, no. 3, Apr. 2016, pp. 6–6.
Clark, Eric. “Crossroad Blues: Black Student Activism Lives, despite Obstacles.” Crisis (00111422), vol. 102, no. 4, May 1995, p. 42.
Claybrook Jr., M. Keith. “Black Power, Black Students, and the Institutionalizing of Change: Loyola Marymount University, 1968-1978.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 5, no. 10, June 2013, pp. 1–19.
---. “The Black Revolution on Campus: An Extended Book Review.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 6, no. 4, Sept. 2013, pp. 103–10.
Cole, Eddie R. “College Presidents and Black Student Protests: A Historical Perspective on the Image of Racial Inclusion and the Reality of Exclusion.” Peabody Journal of Education (0161956X), vol. 93, no. 1, Jan. 2018, pp. 78–89. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/0161956X.2017.1403180.
Diseko, Nozipho J. “The Origins and Development of the South African Student’s Movement (SASM): 1968-1976.” Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 18, no. 1, Mar. 1992, p. 40.
Early, Gerald. “The Quest for a Black Humanism.” Daedalus, vol. 135, no. 2, Spring 2006, pp. 91–104.
Fenderson, Jonathan, and Candace Katungi. “‘Committed to Institution Building’: James Turner and the History of Africana Studies at Cornell University, an Interview.” Journal of African American Studies, vol. 16, no. 1, Mar. 2012, pp. 121–67. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s12111-011-9176-z.
Flowers, Deidre B. “The Launching of the Student Sit-in Movement: The Role of Black Women at Bennett College.” Journal of African American History, vol. 90, no. 1/2, Winter/Spring 2005, pp. 52–63.
Franklin, V. P. “Introduction: African American Student Activism in the 20th Century.” Journal of African American History, vol. 88, no. 2, Spring 2003, pp. 105–09.
Gass, Tony. “‘A Mean City’: The Baltimore NAACP and the Student Movement’s Efforts to Dismantle Segregation and Racial Discrimination, 1953-1963.” Conference Papers -- Association for the Study of African American Life & History, Annual Meeting 2008, pp. 21–21.
Gibbons, William C., et al. “Revolutionary Times Revisited: Students’ Interpretations of the City College of New York Student Protest and Takeover of 1969.” History Teacher, vol. 47, no. 4, Aug. 2014, pp. 511–28.
Gray, Steven, et al. “What Do Students Want?” Nation, vol. 267, no. 10, Oct. 1998, pp. 11–15.
Greene II, Robert. “Campus Protests.” American Book Review, vol. 37, no. 3, Apr. 2016, pp. 4–4.
Guetierrez, David G. “Sin Frontreras?: Chicanos, Mexican Americans, and the Emergence of the Contemporary Mexican...” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 10, no. 4, Summer 1991, p. 5.
Irizarry, Jason G. .., 2. “Buscando La Libertad: Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School.” Democracy & Education, vol. 19, no. 1, Apr. 2011, pp. 1–10.
Jefferson, Jevaillier. “The Southern University 16: A Tribute to 16 African-American College Students Whose Sacrifices Improved the Lives of All of Us.” Black Collegian, vol. 35, no. 1, Oct. 2004, pp. 129–32.
Joseph, Peniel E. “Dashikis and Democracy: Black Studies, Student Activism, and the Black Power Movement.” Journal of African American History, vol. 88, no. 2, Spring 2003, pp. 182–203.
Kynard, Carmen. “‘Looking for the Perfect Beat’: The Power of Black Student Protest Rhetorics for Academic Literacy and Higher Education.” Changing English: Studies in Culture & Education, vol. 12, no. 3, Dec. 2005, pp. 387–402. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/13586840500347236.
LeBrón, Marisol. “Carpeteo Redux: Surveillance and Subversion against the Puerto Rican Student Movement.” Radical History Review, vol. 2017, no. 128, May 2017, pp. 147–72. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1215/01636545-3857854.
Letman III, Sloan T., and Janell Bryant. “The Black Christian Students: Diary of a Social Movement.” Journal of Global Intelligence & Policy, vol. 6, no. 11, Fall 2013, pp. 81–100.
McCurdy, Jack. “UCLA’s ‘no’ on Chicano Studies Dept. Brings Violent Protest.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 39, May 1993, pp. A16–A16.
Muñoz, Carlos Jr., and Mario Barrera. “La Raza Unida Party and the Chicano Student Movement in California.” Social Science Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, Apr. 1982, pp. 101–19.
Opie, Frederick Douglass. “Developing Their Minds without Losing Their Soul: Black and Latino Student Coalition-Building in New York, 1965-1969.” Afro-Americans in New York Life & History, vol. 33, no. 2, July 2009, pp. 79–108.
Revilla, Anita Tijerina. “MUXERISTA PEDAGOGY: Raza Womyn Teaching Social JusticeThrough Student Activism.” High School Journal, vol. 87, no. 4, May 2004, pp. 80–94.
Rhoads, Robert A. “Student Protest and Multicultural Reform: Making Sense of Campus Unrest in the 1990s.” Journal of Higher Education, vol. 69, no. 6, Dec. 1998, pp. 621–46. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2307/2649211.
Rochester, J. “Too Much and Too Little: Campus Demonstrations in the 1960s and Today.” Academic Questions, vol. 29, no. 4, Dec. 2016, pp. 422–27. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s12129-016-9596-2.
Rodriguez, Marc Simon. “A Movement Made of ‘Young Mexican Americans Seeking Change’: Critical Citizenship, Migration, and the Chicano Movement in Texas and Wisconsin, 1960-1975.” Western Historical Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 3, Sept. 2003, p. 274.
Rodriguez, Roberto. “Students Vow to Oppose Proposition 209.” Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan Conference, vol. 13, Nov. 1996, p. 10.
Rodríguez, Roberto. “Tlatelolco and the Generation of ’68 Forged Chicano Movement.” Black Issues in Higher Education, vol. 10, Oct. 1993, pp. 50–51.
Rogers, Ibram. “Celebrating 40 Years of Activism.” Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, vol. 23, no. 10, June 2006, pp. 18–22.
---. “The Black Campus Movement and the Institutionalization of Black Studies, 1965-1970.” Journal of African American Studies, vol. 16, no. 1, Mar. 2012, pp. 21–40. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s12111-011-9173-2.
---. “The Marginalization of the Black Campus Movement.” Journal of Social History, vol. 42, no. 1, Fall 2008, pp. 175–82.
Ruffin Ii, Herbert G. “‘Doing the Right Thing for the Sake of Doing the Right Thing’: The Revolt of the Black Athlete and the Modern Student-Athletic Movement, 1956-2014.” Western Journal of Black Studies, vol. 38, no. 4, Winter 2014, pp. 260–78.
Seals Jr., Donald. “The Wiley-Bishop Student Movement: A Case Study in the 1960 Civil Rights Sit-Ins.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly, vol. 106, no. 3, Jan. 2003, p. 418.
Shea, Christopher. “Hispanic Students, Frustrated over Pace of Reforms on Campuses, Raise the Ante.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 40, Oct. 1993, pp. A40–41.
Smallwood, Andrew P. “Fighting for Our Place in the Sun: Malcolm X and the Radicalization of the Black Student Movement, 1960-1973.” Adult Education Quarterly, vol. 68, no. 2, May 2018, pp. NP1–3. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0741713617750154.
Solorzano, Daniel G., and Dolores Delgado Bernal. “Examining Transformational Resistance through a Critical Race and LatCrit Theory Framework: Chicana and Chicano Students in an Urban Context.” Urban Education, vol. 36, no. 3, May 2001, pp. 308–42. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0042085901363002.
“The Black Revolution on Campus.” Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 6, no. 4, Sept. 2013, pp. 9–102.
Urrieta Jr., Luis. “Chicana/o Activism and Education: An Introduction to the Special Issue.” High School Journal, vol. 87, no. 4, May 2004, pp. 1–9.
White, Khadijah. “Black Lives on Campuses Matter: The Rise of the New Black Student Movement.” Soundings (13626620), no. 63, May 2016, pp. 86–97.
Wilson, Jamie. “Student Protest at Delaware State College, 1968.” Negro History Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 1, Jan. 1999, p. 20.
Winbush, Raymond. “Student Activism in the ’70s and the New Millennium.” Black Collegian, vol. 31, no. 3, Apr. 2001, p. 84.
Winling, LaDale. “Students and the Second Ghetto: Federal Legislation, Urban Politics, and Campus Planning at the University of Chicago.” Journal of Planning History, vol. 10, no. 1, 02/01/2011 2011, pp. 59–86. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/1538513210392002.