When Black Americans Encounter Police Violence, High Anxiety Often Follows
(HEALTHDAY). May 6, 2021
By Cara Murez, HealthDay Reporter
THURSDAY, May 6, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- A new survey confirms what many young Black Americans already know: They are vulnerable to anxiety disorders, particularly during contact with the police or in anticipation of police contact.
"I think it's important, given what's going on in society," said survey author Robert Motley, PhD, Race and Opportunity Lab Manager at Washington University in St. Louis.
"And I think it helps us to get a better understanding because a lot of this research on police violence and mental health outcomes have really only started burgeoning since the Mike Brown incident," Motley said, referencing the shooting of a Black teenager by a white police officer in Ferguson, Mo.
"We still don't fully know its impact, number one, because we don't really know the true rates of exposure, not even how many people are killed by police but how many people are just exposed to nonfatal police use of force," he said.
The survey found that police contact anxiety was moderately high among the 300 survey participants, all of whom attended a community college or university in St. Louis. Being male, unemployed and having witnessed more community violence were significantly associated with greater police contact anxiety.
This report from the National Bureau of Economic Research, a nonprofit think tank, explores the advantages that HBCUs offer and what predominantly white institutions (PWIs) can learn to help Black students.
By Gregory Price & Angelino Viceisza (April 2023)
Summary: "Beyond pointing out the history and impacts of structural racism in St. Louis, this city profile highlights the efforts of community activists, grassroots organizations and city government to disrupt the legacy of unjust policies and decision-making that have shaped the city. In this brief we also offer working principles for Black-centered urban racial equity. Though not intended to be a comprehensive source of information, this brief highlights key facts, figures and opportunities to advance racial equity in St. Louis"--Introduction.
"The report is the second in a series of reports that will address egregious suspension rates across the county of Sacramento (which is home to 4 of the top 20 suspension districts in the State of California).
Among the most concerning findings are that Black boys in kindergarten through third grade are 10.4 times more likely to be suspended than their peers (statewide). The district is among the top three suspension districts in the state and serves as a public example of systemic failures, divisive politics, and pervasive educational inequities."
People of color are drastically overrepresented in Massachusetts state prisons. According to the Massachusetts Sentencing Commission’s analysis of 2014 data, the Commonwealth significantly outpaced national race and ethnicity disparity rates in incarceration, imprisoning Black people at a rate 7.9 times that of White people and Latinx people at 4.9 times that of White people.
This report explores the factors that lead to persistent racial disparities in the Massachusetts criminal system by leveraging detailed administrative data from several agencies, including the Massachusetts Trial Court, the Department of Criminal Justice Information Services, and
the Department of Correction. These data provide a useful, if incomplete, window into
several different stages of the criminal system from charging and bail to adjudication and sentencing.
"As the nation struggles with police violence, a new report from HomeGrown StL in the Race and Opportunity Lab at the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis recommends reforms to build an equitable, transparent and accountable public safety approach that will include lawsuit liability, a police misconduct database and federal funding mandates." WU Source, June 30, 2020
WU Brown School Research Report - “A high-quality education is critical to lifelong wellbeing. But such an education is far from guaranteed in the St. Louis region, and whether or not a child receives one can all too often be predicted by his or her race and other characteristics. Out-of-school suspension (OSS) is a serious form of school-based discipline that affects the quality of a child’s education. OSS is widely used inequitably, leading to “discipline gaps.” Black students, males, and students with disabilities are all more likely to receive an OSS . . .” [from the Executive Summary]
This report was prepared by the Interdisciplinary Environmental Clinic at Washington University School of Law finds that Black St. Louisans are exposed to considerably greater environmental risks than white residents, contributing to stark racial disparities regarding health, economic, and quality of life burdens.
Among the report’s findings include:
Black children in the City of St. Louis are 2.4 times more likely than white children to test positive for lead in their blood and account for more than 70% of children suffering from lead poisoning.
Black children in St. Louis make roughly 10 times more emergency room visits for asthma each year than white children. Black children make more than 42 emergency room visits per 1,000 children, compared to less than 4 visits per 1,000 children for their white counterparts.
Mold complaints are more common in majority-black areas than elsewhere in the city.
Most of the city’s air pollution sources are located in neighborhoods of color, and more building demolitions — which create harmful dust that may contain asbestos and lead — occur in majority-black neighborhoods.
Black households in St. Louis are disproportionately affected by energy burdens (the percentage of income spent on utilities), far exceeding the citywide median.
Black residents of St. Louis are almost twice as likely to have limited access to healthy food as white residents because supermarkets in close proximity are so rare, and they are more likely to have limited access to a vehicle or adequate public transit to reach more distant grocery stores.
Majority-black neighborhoods experience most of the city’s illegal trash dumping.
More than 90% of the city’s exceptionally large inventory of vacant properties are located in majority-black neighborhoods.
A new (2019) report by the American Council on Education (ACE) details the persisting racial inequities across higher education. The full report is available on the ACE website at:
A new (2018) study at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis finds disparities between African-Americans and Caucasians in a key biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease – suggesting that tools to diagnose the disease in Caucasian populations may not work as well in African-Americans.
"Welcome to the findings of our Troll Patrol project: a joint effort by human rights researchers, technical experts and thousands of online volunteers to build the world’s largest crowd-sourced dataset of online abuse against women.
Our findings reveal the sheer scale and nature of online abuse faced by women and provides a resource to researchers and engineers interested in exploring the potential of machine learning in content moderation."
New Study Confirms That Black Women Are Most Abused Group on Twitter
Amnesty International hopes Twitter will use the findings to make women safer online.
Ayana Byrd DEC 19, 2018 11:59AM EST
"Underrepresented Students in US Study Abroad: Investigating Impacts synthesizes existing research on the association of study abroad with positive academic outcomes for minority and other underrepresented students, with the goal of ultimately helping enhance pathways of access to study abroad for all students."
"The report, First-generation Student Success: A Landscape Analysis of Programs and Services at Four year Institutions, ... details how institutions are serving first-generation students, the challenges institutions encounter in providing support, and how first generation students perceive their institutional experience."
Report by the Business-Higher Education Forum, cites a “fundamental disconnect” between the skills that employers desire versus the skills that graduates possess.More specifically, the report states that, while 69 percent of employers expect candidates with data science and analytics skills — or DSA skills — to get preference for jobs at their organizations, only 23 percent of college and university leaders say their graduates will have those skills.
(April 2015) African Americans continue to face long-term and persistent inequities when it comes to employment, income and wealth, according to a report by the Congressional Black Caucus and the Democratic staff of the Joint Economic Committee. The report, Economic Challenges in the Black Community, says the recession took a greater financial toll on African-American households than it did on white households, increasing the disparity in wealth between blacks and whites.
The Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice opened its investigation of the Ferguson Police Department (“FPD”) on September 4, 2014. This investigation was initiated under the pattern-or-practice provision of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, 42 U.S.C. § 14141, the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, 42 U.S.C. § 3789d (“Safe Streets Act”), and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d (“Title VI”). This investigation has revealed a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct within the Ferguson Police Department that violates the First, Fourth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and federal statutory law.
"A report on the civil rights impact of police and community relations in Missouri, particularly disparities in the use of force on people of color, submitted to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. The contents of the report are primarily based on testimony heard by the Missouri Advisory Committee on February 23, 2015 in St. Louis and August 20, 2015 in Kansas City, Missouri."
"On August 9, 2014, Officer Darren Wilson of the Ferguson (Missouri) Police Department shot and killed Michael Brown. This tragic incident and the ensuing weeks of demonstrations and riots launched a national debate about racial profiling, use of force, militarization, and policing in general. The After-Action Assessment of the Police Response to the August 2014 Demonstrations in Ferguson, Missouri examines the law enforcement response to the mass demonstrations during the first 17 days, focusing on the primary responders, the St. Louis County Police Department, the St. Louis Metropolitan Police Department, the Missouri State Highway Patrol, and the Ferguson Police Department. In this report, the after-action assessment team composed of subject matter experts identifies findings and provides lessons learned based on interviews, media content analysis, and literature reviews. This report also delves into specific topic areas from use of force to communications to policies and procedures"--Abstract, Community Oriented Policing Services website.
New National Survey Also Finds Presidents Engaged in Short- and Long-Term Planning to Address Systemic Racism in Higher Education
Aug 3, 2020
Washington, DC—August 3, 2020—The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) today released “Responding to the Ongoing COVID-19 Crisis and to Calls for Racial Justice: A Survey of College and University Presidents,” a new report on how college and university presidents are currently planning to address both the financial fallout from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the campus implications of the national protest movement for racial justice. The report presents findings from a national survey of members of the AAC&U Presidents’ Trust, a broad and diverse network of higher education leaders representing four-year public and private institutions and two-year community colleges, that was conducted between June 25 and July 12, 2020, in partnership with ABC Insights.
A task force formed by The Steve Fund — a nonprofit focused on the mental health of youth of color — recently released a report that advises colleges and employers on how best to help students of color with mental health issues in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, a struggling economy and ongoing racial strife.