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A Social Work Research Guide

Social work research guide

What is on This Social Policy Page

This social policy page has resources that may help you with your social welfare/policy class assignments.  For the assignments, it is easier to work with a bill that became a law.  It is more difficult to work with bills that died in committee or are currently active in Congress.  At the federal level, Congress.gov has a limit, "Became Law," which filters out the bills that died in committee or are currently active in Congress.

Social Policy - Choosing a Topic Subpage

Social Policy - Legislative History Resources

Social Policy - Legislative History Searching for Articles

When searching for articles on the origins of legislation, consider using some of the following words in the title field along with keywords related to your law:  Background  Congress*  Develop*  Enact*  Histor*  House  Legislat*  Origin*  Overview  Representative*  Review  Senat*
Anniversary articles often include history. Consider:  Anniversary  Birthday  "5 yr"  "5 year*"  "five year*"  "10 yr"  "10 year*"  "ten year*"  "20 yr"  "20 year*"  "twenty year*"  "50 yr"  "50 year*"  "fifty year*"  "100 yr"  "100 year*"  "hundred year*"
Words for the bill's path: Agree*  Amend*  Approve*  Bill  Clear*  Compromis*  Conference*  Enrolled  Move*  Pass*  Reconcil*  Reauthoriz*  Send* Sent  Signed  Version*  Vote*

Social Policy - Legislative History - Tracking Bills

Social Policy - Economics Related Resources

Social Policy - Economics Searching for Articles

When searching for journal articles, the following words may be helpful:  allocat*  appropriat*  budget*  charg*  cost*  dollar*  economic*  expend*  expense*  fee  fees  financ*  fiscal*  fund  funded  funding  funds  income*  money*  monies  pay*  reimburs*  revenue*  spend*  spent  tax*

Social Policy - Background & Opinion Resources

Social Policy - Background & Opinion Policy Organizations

Many associations, institutes, interest groups, research centers, think tanks, etc.  produce opinion pieces, policy briefs, working papers, etc.  Many of their websites have search boxes or list the publications in a publications tab or a research tab.  To find these organizations, consider the following resources.

Social Policy - State & Local Resources

Social Policy - Citing Government Items

Certain government resources are cited differently.  Consult these style guides if you use government resources. 

Social Policy - Citing Government Items Examples of APA

EXAMPLES FOR CITING GOVERNMENT ITEMS IN APA STYLE

References to legal materials appear in Appendix 7.1 on pages 216-224 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  The library has several copies of the APA manual at call number PN 147 A5 2010.

Congress.gov Website (regular reference, website format)

In-text citation (see section 6.05 on page 171 of the APA manual):
Examples:
1) The bill was assigned to the Committee on Education and the
Workforce (Congress.gov, n.d., Major Actions).

Explanation:
Congress.gov is the corporate author
n.d. because the web page has no date information
Major Actions is the section's title

2) The bill establishes a grant system for math and science partnership
programs (Congress.gov, n.d., "Title II: Preparing, Training," para. 2).

Explanation:
Congress.gov is the corporate author
n.d. because the web page has no date information
"Title II: Preparing, Training" because the section's title is too long to type
     out completely
para. 2 because the information is in the second paragraph in the
     Title II section

Reference page entry:
Congress.gov. (n.d.). H.R.1-No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: 107th Congress (2001-2002).  Retrieved from          
          https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/house-bill/1?q={%22search%22%3A[%22\%22\\\%22no+child+left+behind        
          \\\%22\%22%22]}&resultIndex=1


Explanation of the reference page entry:
Congress.gov is the corporate author
n.d. because the web page has no date information
H.R. 1-No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: 107th Congress (2001-2002) because that is the title of the webpage
Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/house-bill/1?q={%22search%22%3A[%22\%22\\\%22no+child+left+behind\\\%22\%22%22]}&resultIndex=1  because that is the web page's URL.


Enacted Bill / Public Law / Statute (legal reference)


In-text citation:
According to example 9 on page 220, you should include the name of the act and the year.

Examples:
1) The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 changed the language instruction format to include English as a Second Language.

2) Section 301 of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) changed the language instruction format.

Reference page entry (example 11 on page 220):
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, § 301,
       115 Stat. 1689 (2002).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is the title of the act for the bill that
     was enacted.
Pub. L. No. 107-110 is the abbreviated form for public law
     number 107-110.
§ 301 is the section number for language instruction that was
     cited in the paper.
115 Stat. is the abbreviated form for volume 115 of the United States
     Statutes at Large.
1689 is the beginning page number for section 301 about language
     instruction in the U.S. Statutes at Large.
2002 is the publication date for volume 115 of the U.S. Statutes
     at Large.


Unenacted House Bill (legal reference, this version of the bill did not become law) 

In-text citation:
According to example 14 on page 222 of the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the APA, you should include the bill number and the year.

Examples:
1) The bill (H.R. 1, 2001) was introduced.  The committee revised section 201 on teacher quality.

2) House of Representatives bill H.R. 1 (2001) was revised in the Committee on Education and the Workforce.  The committee changed section 201 which related to teacher quality.

Reference page entry:
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, H.R. 1, 107th Cong. § 201 (2001).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is the name of the act for the introduced bill.
H.R. 1 is the abbreviated form for House of Representatives bill number 1.
107th Cong. is the 107th Congressional session when the bill was introduced. 
     According to the example, you do not need to worry about whether it was
     the 1st or 2nd session of that Congress.
§ 201 is the section number for teacher quality that you cited in your paper.
2001 is the year of the bill.

Reference page entry for an entire bill, not just a section
(example 15 on page 222):
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, H.R. 1, 107th Cong. (2001).


Unenacted Senate Bill (legal reference, this version of the bill did not become law)

In-text citation:
According to example 14 on page 222, you should include the bill number and the year.

Examples:
1) The bill (S. 1, 2001) was introduced.  The committee revised section 201 on teacher quality.

2) Senate bill S. 1 (2001) was revised in the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.  The committee changed section 201 which related to teacher quality.

Reference page entry:
Better Education for Students and Teachers Act, S. 1, 107th Cong.
          § 201 (2001).


Explanation of the reference page entry:

Better Education for Students and Teachers Act is the name of the act for the
     introduced bill.
S. 1 is the abbreviated form for Senate bill number 1.
107th Cong. is the 107th Congressional session when the bill was introduced. 
     According to the example, you do not need to worry about whether it was
     the 1st or 2nd session of that Congress.
§ 201 is the section number for teacher quality that you cited in your paper.
2001 is the year of the bill.

Reference page entry for an entire bill, not just a section
(example 15 on page 222):
Better Education for Students and Teachers Act, S. 1, 107th Cong. (2001).


Committee or Subcommittee Hearing (legal reference)

In-text citation:
According to example 12 on page 221, you should include the title of hearing and the year.  It is okay to shorten the title of the hearing.

Examples:
1) Ms. Foster's testimony at the hearing, Transforming the Federal Role (2001), mentioned three funding problems.

2) Ms. Foster's testimony discussed three funding problems (Transforming the Federal Role, 2001).

Reference page entry:
Transforming the federal role in education for the 21st century: Hearing on
          H.R. 1, 
H.R. 340, and H.R. 345: Hearing before the Committee on
          Education and the 
Workforce, 107th Cong. 9 (2001)
          (testimony of Gail E. Foster).


Explanation of the reference page entry:

Transforming the federal role in education for the 21st century: Hearing on
     H.R. 1, H.R. 340, and H.R. 345: Hearing before the Committee on
     Education and the Workforce is the complete title of hearing.
107th Cong. is the Congressional number when the hearing took place.  According
     to the example, you do not need to worry about whether it was the 1st or
     2nd session of that Congress.
9 is the beginning page number for Ms. Foster's testimony.
2001 is the year of the hearing.
testimony of Gail E. Foster is the testimony that you are citing in your paper.


House Committee Report (legal reference)

In-text citation:
According to example 17 on page 223, you should include the report number and the year.

Examples:
1) The House committee report (H.R. Rep. No. 107-63 Part 1, 2001) mentioned several dissenting views.

2) House Report 107-63 Part 1 (2001) includes several opposing views.

Reference page entry:
H.R. Rep. No. 107-63 Part 1, at 1240 (2001).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

H.R. Rep. No. 107-63 Part 1 is the abbreviated form for House of Representatives
     report number 107-63 part 1.
at page 1240 is the beginning page number for the dissenting opinions.
2001 is the year of the committee report.


Senate Committee Report (legal reference)

In-text citation:
According to example 17 on page 223, you should include the report number and the year.

Examples:
1) Senate Report 107-7 (2001) provides three dissenting opinions.

2) The Senate committee issued a report (S. Rep. No. 107-7, 2001) that mentioned three dissenting opinions.

Reference page entry:
S. Rep. No. 107-7, at 145 (2001).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

S. Rep. No. 107-7 is the abbreviated form for Senate report number 107-7.
at 145 is the beginning page number for the dissenting opinions.
2001 is the year of the committee report.


Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate (regular reference, report format)

In-text citation examples:

1) The Congressional Budget Office's cost estimate (2001, p. 1) concluded that the bill would add $99 billion in expenditures.

2) If enacted, the law would require $99 billion in additional expenditures (Congressional Budget Office, 2001, p. 1).

Reference page entry (example 31 on page 205):
Congressional Budget Office. (2001). Congressional Budget Office cost estimate:
          H.R. 1: No  Child Left Behind Act of 2001: As ordered reported by
          the House Committee on Education and the Workforce on May 9, 2001
.
          Retrieved from
 http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/28xx/doc2813/hr1.pdf

Explanation of the reference page entry:

Congressional Budget Office is the author of the report.
2001 is the year of the report.
Congressional Budget Office cost estimate: H.R. 1: No Child Left Behind Act of
     2001: As ordered reported by the House Committee on Education and the
     Workforce on May 9, 2001
is the complete title of the government report.
Retrieved from http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/28xx/doc2813/hr1.pdf  is the
     Internet URL where you found the report.

Note: There was no report number to include in parentheses.  The agency is not included in the Retrieved from section because the agency is the same as the author (see the third bullet point in the instructions for section 7.03 on page 205).


CRS Report (Congressional Research Service) (regular reference, report format)

In-text Citations:
Per APA Style Experts, if more than one item has the same author, year, title, and report number, include alphabet letters after the year in order to distinguish the reports.

Example:
1)  Congress learned about two key vulnerabilities (Fernandes-Alcantara, 2012a). 
     One month later, a third vulnerability was presented to Congress
     (Fernandes-Alcantara, 2012b).

Reference page entries:
Fernandes-Alcantara, A. L. (2012a). Vulnerable youth: Background and policies
          (Report No. RL33975) [August 29]. Retrieved from http://congressional
          .proquest.com/

Fernandes-Alcantara, A. L. (2012b). Vulnerable youth: Background and policies
          (Report No. RL33975) [October 1]. Retrieved from http://congressional
          .proquest.com/


Explanation of reference page entries:

Fernandes-Alcantara, A. L. is the author of the CRS report.
(2012a) is the year of the report with the added letter "a" to distinguish the
          August report from the
other report.
(2012b)  is the year of the report with the added letter "b" to distinguish the
          October report from the other report.
Vulnerable youth: Background and policies  is the title of the CRS report.
(Report No. RL33975)  is the report number found on the CRS report.
[August 29]  is the release date of the CRS report.
[October 1]  is the release date of the other CRS report.
Retrieved from http://congressional.proquest.com/  is the main URL for the
          ProQuest Congressional database where the CRS report is archived.
          See the bullet point on page 192 of the APA manual on why you use
          the ProQuest home page for archival documents. 

In-text citation for an example of a CRS report that does not have another report by the same author and title for that year.  There are no added letters "a" "b" etc. after the year.

Example:
1)  Five key issues related to quality were discussed in the
     report (Kuenzi, 2011).

Reference page entry for a CRS report that does not have another report by the same author and title for that year.
Kuenzi, J. J. (2011). A highly qualified teacher in every classroom: 
          Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act and reauthorization
          issues for the 112th Congress
 
(Report No. RL33333). Retrieved from
          http://congressional.proquest.com/


Explanation of the reference page entry:
Kuenzi, J. J.  is the author of the CRS report.
(2011)  is the year of the CRS report.
A highly qualified teacher in every classroom: Implementation of the No
          Child Left Behind Act and reauthorization issues for the 112th Congress
 
          is the title of the CRS report.
(Report No. RL33333)  is the report number.
Retrieved from http://congressional.proquest.com/  is the main URL for the
          ProQuest Congressional database where the CRS report is archived.  See
          the bullet point on page 192 of the APA manual on why you use the
          ProQuest home page for archival documents.

Social Policy - Citing Government Items Examples of APA Continued

Congressional Record Statement - House of Representatives (legal reference)

In-text citation:
The following pattern was suggested by the APA in response to my query.  You should include the title of the Congressman's statement and the year.  It is okay to shorten the title of statement.

Example:
1) Representative Capps proposed an amendment for CPR training (Amendment No. 2 Offered by Mrs. Capps, 2001).

Reference page entry:  The following pattern was suggested by the APA in response to my query.
Amendment No. 2 Offered by Mrs. Capps, 147 Cong. Rec. H2519
          (daily ed. May 22, 2001) (statement of Rep. Capps).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

Amendment No. 2 Offered by Mrs. Capps is the title from the Congressional
     Record page where Ms. Capps' statement appears.
147 Cong. Rec. is the volume number of the Congressional Record.
H2519 is the page number of Ms. Capps' statement.
daily ed. May 22, 2001 is the daily edition version of the Congressional Record
     and the date of Rep. Capps' remarks.
statement of Rep. Capps tells the reader which discussion applies to
     your paper.


Congressional Record Statement - Senate (legal reference)

In-text citation:
The following pattern was suggested by the APA in response to my query.  You should include the title of the Congressman's statement and the year.  It is okay to shorten the title of statement.

Example:
1) Senator Durbin proposed an amendment for pest management (Better Education for Students and Teachers Act, 2001).

Reference page entry:  The following pattern was suggested by the APA in response to my query.
Better Education for Students and Teachers Act, 147 Cong. Rec. S6395-98
          (daily ed. June 19, 2001) (statement of Sen. Durbin).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

Better Education for Students and Teachers Act is the title from the
     Congressional Record page where Mr. Durbin's statement appears.
147 Cong. Rec. is the volume number of the Congressional Record.
S6395-98 are the page numbers of Mr. Durbin's statement.
daily ed. June 19, 2001 is the daily edition version of the Congressional
     Record and the date of Sen. Durbin's remarks.
statement of Sen. Durbin tells the reader which discussion applies to
     your paper.


Congressional Record Statement - Extensions of Remarks (legal reference)

In-text citation:
The following pattern was suggested by the APA in response to my query.  You should include the title of the Congressman's statement and the year.  It is okay to shorten the title of statement.

Example:
1) Senator Boehner's comments (Introduction of H.R. 1, 2001) provided key reasons for educational change.

Reference page entry:  The following pattern was suggested by the APA in response to my query.
Introduction of H.R. 1: The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 147 Cong. Rec.
          E437 (daily ed. March 22, 2001) (statement of Sen. Boehner).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

Introduction of H.R. 1: The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is the title from
     the Congressional Record page where Mr. Boehner's statement appears.
147 Cong. Rec. is the volume number of the Congressional Record.
E437 is the page number of Mr. Boehner's statement.
daily ed. March 22, 2001 is the daily edition version of the Congressional
     Record and the date of Sen. Boehner's remarks.
statement of Sen. Boehner tells the reader which discussion applies to
     your paper.


Conference Committee Report (legal reference)

In-text citation:
According to example 17 on page 223, you should include the report number and the year.

Examples:
1) The conference committee issued a report (H.R. Rep. No. 107-334, 2001) that described the changes to section 301 which relates to language format.

2) House Conference Committee Report 107-334 (2001) describes the changes to section 301 and mentions the requirement for English as a Second Language.

Reference page entry:
H.R. Rep. No. 107-334, at 270 (2001).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

H.R. Rep. No. 107-334 is the abbreviated form for House of
     Representatives report number 107-334.
at 270  is the beginning page number for section 301 where language
     format is mentioned.
2001 is the year of the conference committee report.


Presidential Remarks When Signing the Bill into Law (regular reference, periodical format)

In-text citation examples:
1) President Bush (2002) signed the bill into law and gave a speech that explained why education would be better in the future.

2) The President explained why education would be better in the future (Bush, 2002).

Reference page entry (example 3 on page 199):
Bush, G. W. (2002). Remarks on signing the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
          in Hamilton, Ohio, January 8, 2002. Weekly Compilation of Presidential
          Documents, 38,
26-29. Retrieved from
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg
          /WCPD-2002-01-14
/pdf/WCPD-2002-01-14-Pg26-2.pdf

Explanation of reference page entry:

Bush, G. W. is the author of the article.
2002 is the year of the article.
Remarks on signing the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 in Hamilton, 
     Ohio, January 8, 2002 is the title of the article.
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents is the journal's name.
38 is the volume number of the journal.
26-29 are the pages of the article.
Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/WCPD-2002-01-14/pdf/WCPD
     -2002-01-14-Pg26-2.pdf
  is the URL of the article.

Note: The journal's pagination is continuous.  Therefore, the reference entry has no issue number.  The full URL is given in order to aid retrieval.  APA style permits the full URL (see the instructions on page 193 and the first bullet point in example 9 on page 200).


Enacted Bill / Public Law / Statute (legal reference)

In-text citation:
According to example 9 on page 220, you should include the name of the act and the year.

Examples:
1) The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 changed the language instruction format to include English as a Second Language.

2) Section 301 of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) changed the language instruction format.

Reference page entry (example 11 on page 220):
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, § 301,
          115 Stat. 1689 (2002).

Explanation of the reference page entry:

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is the title of the act for the bill that
     was enacted.
Pub. L. No. 107-110 is the abbreviated form for public law
     number 107-110.
§ 301 is the section number for language instruction that was
     cited in the paper.
115 Stat. is the abbreviated form for volume 115 of the United States
     Statutes at Large.
1689 is the beginning page number for section 301 about language
     instruction in the U.S. Statutes at Large.
2002 is the publication date for volume 115 of the U.S. Statutes
     at Large.


Green Book (regular reference, print book format)

In-text citation examples:
1) The Committee on Ways and Means (2004, p. 9-41) reported that 25,577 children in Nebraska had development fund support.

2) Development funds supported 25,577 children in child care settings in Nebraska (Committee on Ways and Means, 2004, p. 9-41).

Reference page entry (example 18 on page 203):
Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives. (2004).
          2004 green book: Background material and data on the programs within
          the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means
(18th ed.).

          Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Note: The Green Book uses a different system for page numbers.  Each section has its own page numbers.  Page 9-41 is page 41 within section 9.


Green Book (regular reference, electronic book format)

In-text citation examples:
1) The Committee on Ways and Means (2004, p. 9-41) reported that 25,577 children in Nebraska had development fund support.

2) Development funds supported 25,577 children in child care settings in Nebraska (Committee on Ways and Means, 2004, p. 9-41).

Reference page entry (example 19 on page 203):
Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives. (2004).
          2004 green book: Background material and data on the programs within
          the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means
(18th ed.). 
          Retrieved from 
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action
         
?collectionCode=GPO

Note: The Green Book uses a different system for page numbers.  Each section has its own page numbers.  Page 9-41 is page 41 within section 9.


United States Constitution (legal reference)
In-text citation examples:
State the part of the Constitution, or if quoting, give the exact location.  No year is given in the in-text citation.

1) The President must provide a State of the Union to Congress (U.S. Const. art. II § 3, cl. 1).

2) To prevent tyranny, the President cannot serve more than two terms (U.S. Const. amend. XXII, § 1).

Explanation:
U.S. Const.  is the APA abbreviation for United States Constitution
art.  is the APA abbreviation for Article
§  is the symbol for Section
cl.  is the APA abbreviation for Clause
amend.  is the APA abbreviation for Amendment

Reference page entry:
1) Example for an Article:  U.S. Const. art. I § 9, cl. 2.
2) Example for an Amendment:  U.S. Const. amend. XIV, § 2.
3) Example for the Preamble:  U.S. Const. pmbl.

State Statute (legal reference)

In-text citation:
The following pattern was suggested by Peter Coogan, Communication Lab Coordinator.

Example:


Reference page entry:  The following pattern was suggested by Peter Coogan, Communication Lab Coordinator.
Mo. Rev. Stat. §170.015 (2015). Retrieved from http://revisor.mo.gov/main/OneChapter.aspx?chapter=170

Explanation of the reference page entry:

Mo. Rev. Stat. is the Missouri Revised Statutes
§170.015 is chapter 170, section 015 of the statutes
(2015) is the year of the statute
Retrieved from: is the URL for the statute

Website with More Resources in APA Format:
Westfield State University Ely Library
APA Style - Citing Legal Materials
http://lib.westfield.ma.edu/content.php?pid=486574&sid=3991782

Social Policy - Biographical Information Subpage

Pro/Con Terms - Social Policy Subpage

The following words may help you as you conduct searches for the pro/con of a topic.

ASSESS terms: 
accountab*  analys*  analyz*  argu*  assess*  background  cause*  choice* 
choosing  chose*  comparative  comparing  comparison  conclud*  conclusion* 
debat*  determin*  differences  dilemma*  discuss* effects  evaluat*  examin* 

expert*  factor*  future  implement*  indicator*  issues  judg* look* 
measur*  option*  outcome*  outlook  overview*  perspective*  policy 
prefer*  principle*  re-examin*  reason*  reexamin*  research* 
result*  review*  status  summary

PRO terms: 
accomplish*  achiev*  advoca*  affect*  affirm*  agree*  approv*  assent* 
beneficial*  benefit*  best  better  capable  "case for"  compliant*  complies 
comply*  concordance*  concur*  consent*  cure*  desire*  effective*  enhanc* 
fantastic* 

gain*  good  great  happy  help*  impact*  importan*  improv*  "in favor of"
keep  learn*  like*  love  malleable  merit*  opinion*  opportunit*  permission* 
permit*  persua*  positive*  praise*  praising  preach*  pro  progress* 

promise*  proponent*  pros   prove*  proving  realit*  recommend*  right* 
solution*  solve*  solving  strength*  "subscribe to"  succeed*  success*  support* 
truth*  understand*  upgrad*  uphold*  value*  win  winner*  winning*  wins 
won  wonderful* work*

CON terms: 
acced*  acquiesce*  adverse  aftermath  against  alter*  antagonist* 
anti  awful*  backlash  bad  barrier*  battl*  bitter* block  blunder*  bump 
"case against" catastroph*  cautio* challeng*  change*  changing  con 
concern*  conflict* confus*  cons  consequence*  constrain* 

contentio* contest*  contrary  controvers*  cost*  critic*  critiqu* 
damag*  danger*  defeat*  defer*  deficien*  deficit*  deleterious*
demand*  destroy*  destructive  deter*  detract*  detriment*  difficult*
disadvantage  discontent*  discordance*  discourag*  dislike*  dismal* 

drawback*  error*  evil*  exclud*  exclusion*  fail*  fallac*  false  falter* 
farce*  fault*  fear*  fight*  fix*  flaw* foe  foes  folly* forbear*  forebod*
forego*  forsak*  fought  hamper*  harm*  hate*  hazardous  hinder* 
hindrance*  horrible*  hurdle*  hurt*  impair*  impasse*  imped* 

imperil* implicat*  inaccessib*  inaccura*  inappropriat*  ineffective* 
inhibit*  insufficien*  interfer*  jeopardize  judg*  kill*  lack*  leaves 
lesson*  lies  limit*  lose*  losing  loss*  malarky  malcontent* 
misconception*  misconduct*  mistake*  misunderstand* 

modifi*  modify*  myth*  negative*  nightmare*  obstacle*  obstruct* 
opponent*  oppos*  peril*  perplex*  pitfall*  portend*  preclud* 
preclusion*  predicament*  prevent*  problem*  protest*  ramification 
rancor*  reduc*  reform*  repeal*  rescind*  resist*  rethink*  re-think* 

revamp*  revise*  revision*  rhetoric*  risk*  roadblock*  rotten* 
ruin  ruinous  shortcoming*  skeptic*  "stumbling block*"  terrible*
thwart*  transform*  trouble*  tyrann*  undermin*  unfavorable 
unintended  unsuccess*  untruth*  vex*  weak*  weakness*  withdraw* 
withhold*  worse  worsen  wrong*  yield*